INTERSPORT forbids Cashback-World the use of their logo worldwide!

INTERSPORT is the biggest medium-sized mail order business group in worldwide sports retail. Under, 5800 locations in 65 countries are united under the umbrella of the IIC-Intersport International Corporation GmbH, the purchasing and management corporation of the Intersport group. In 2014 they generated a turnover of EUR 10,5 billion. With market shares of around 36% in Germany and over 20% in Europe the IIC GmbH is the world leader in sports retail.

On 1 October 2018 it was already reported that INTERSPORT Germany has forbidden the use of the INTERSPORT company logo.

Confessing “Lyoneses” therefore accused me of being a liar and sent me INTERSPORT logos of different countries that were used on Cashback World websites as an ostensible proof. Thereupon I asked the INTERSPORT headquarters once again.

The INTERSPORT headquarters answered on 25 March 2019:

“Dear Mr. Ecker,

thank you for your message, please excuse my late reply. As we already told you last year INTERSPORT Germany has encouraged Lyoness Europe AG to take our logo off their website immediately. To our knowledge this has happened. In the meantime, they were prompted to do so with all logos of the national companies within our group.

We therefore like to emphasise once again that there is no cooperation with Lyoness and there is no contractual relationship with Lyoness Europe AG.

Best regards


corporate communications

Wannenäckerstraße 50
74078 Heilbronn

Germany        ”

Time and again, it has shown, that several affiliates obviously are on the Lyoness management board’s pay roll. Also, the continuos denials of renowned companies are illustrating clearly, how low the revenue at Lyoness (Cashback World) must be.

If these enormous turnovers actually existed, large high-revenue companies would certainly be willing to be listed at myWorld/Lyoness (Cashback World).

Lyconet and its problem with age verification of its marketers!

Making profits at all costs is the key factor for wealth, therefore information about marketers might not be checked very carefully. The legal provisions are basically clear though.

Since my article of 19 March 2019 i have been contacted by various minors who have been encouraged by other Lyconet marketers to sign up at Lyconet with false information about their age. This is suspected to have happened in agreement with Lyconet officials.

Although, Lyconet is obligated to verify the age of their customers, for example by copies of identification documents, the Post-Ident process, Q-Bit etc., the respective marketer is blamed and minor respectively their parents are threatened with legal measures.

Eg. see a letter from Lyconet: Rechtsabteilung wegen Minderjähriger 2

The respective recommendation givers refer to “consultations with their upline”. There are multiple voice mails from Lyconet marketers as a proof.

Here the transcription of voice mails in one case (the original version is in my possession):

Before the minor had signed and expressed his concerns, his recommendation giver told him:

“I already clarified that with my upline, I’ll tell you how the whole thing can be made possible. We are definitely going to handle that. There are possibilities, enough possibilities to start it though you are only 17 years old. I’ll tell you then… Rock on!”

Lyconet writes to the referrer: Minderjährige Empfehlungsgeber 2

translation: „Yo, the question is, what should I do now? Should I write that I didn’t know it, if that’s ok, or how do you                       want to handle it instead? Just asking… Greetings”

If myWorld/Lyconet approvingly accepts the registration of minors? If marketers, if they are at all, are being instructed on this and on the consequences that might follow?

Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS and the last round in Norway!

Publication of the Authority dated 13.03.2019 (Norwegische Behörde 13.03.2019) in translation:

Lyoness – Request for a written confirmation that the infringement against the Ponzi scheme regulations of the lottery law has been remedied, cf. § 16 (4) of the lottery law

The supervisory authority for lotteries refers to the lottery committee’s resolution of 27 January 2019 in which the claim of Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS regarding the lottery committee’s resolution of 31 May 2018 was rejected. Further we are referring to the lottery office’s decision of 28 February 2019 not to suspend the resolution.

The lottery committee concluded that Lyoness is a trading system which is a Ponzi scheme according to § 16 (2) and has sustained the lottery supervisory authority’s resolution. The lottery committee has found no reason for giving Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS the possibility to remedy unlawful circumstances. The resolution has the consequence that Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS must stop the complete business, the participation and distribution of products of the company in Norway.

The supervisory authority for lotteries’ resolution of 31 May 2018 shows that the resolution for a suspend of Lyoness’ operations includes that all purchases and payments of Norwegian participants and Cashback-companies of Lyoness, Lyconet and Cashback World must be stopped. Further, the marketing of the enterprise, the use of bonus cards and the sale of discount vouchers, shares in customer clouds, gift cards, marketing material, seminars and the like must be stopped. Also, Lyoness is encouraged to stop any payment of discounts, bonuses and provisions to the Norwegian participants.

The supervisory authority for lotteries demands a prompt written confirmation from Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS for the remedy of the infringement of § 16 of the lottery law, cf. lottery law § 16 (4).

We refer to the resolution of 31 May 2018 and want to point out that the resolution of the stop of Lyoness’ business in Norway does not keep Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS from paying back the amounts, participants paid for the purchase of discount vouchers and shares in customer clouds before the day of the resolution and that were not paid back in the form of redeemed discount vouchers. Furthermore, Lyoness is not prevented from paying back the amounts participants have paid for marketing material and seminars before the day of the resolution. Also, Lyoness is entitled to pay out the amounts participants have compiled by purchasing from Cashback companies until the day of the resolution.

The lottery supervisory authority points out, that we are going to evaluate this issue precisely. An infringement of § 16 is to be seen as a gross infringement of the lottery law and can be avenged with penalties or prison sentences of up to three years, cf. § 17 (2) of the lottery law. Such a punishment can be inflicted on companies and persons that are founding, operating, participating or distributing a Ponzi scheme, cf. § 17 and § 16.


According to the resolution of 27 January 2019

Section  1 of the lottery law. Illegal Ponzi schemes are exposing consumers to a financial risk and further detrimental effects that have to be prevented, cf. preparatory work for Ponzi scheme regulations in the lottery law Ot.prp. Nr. 97 (2004-2005) Section 1.

The supervisory authority for lotteries urges Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS to in form marketing managers and Cashback companies quickest possible about the resolution and the consequences they will have to face if the business, the participation and the distribution of the illegal Ponzi scheme will not be stopped immediately.

If the supervisory authority should become aware that the company is violating the resolution we will consider a sanction of Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS according to § 14 c of the lottery law. The supervisory authority for lotteries will also consider filing a complaint against Lyoness Europe AG, Lyoness Norway AS, the marketing managers and other business partners of Lyoness that continue the unlawful operations.

In case of a possible trial the supervisory authority for lotteries will bring in further information and evidence concerning the case.

Best regards

Lyoness and its new countries!

After its prohibition in Norway and Italy as well as the final convictions as a snowball system (Ponzi scheme) in Austria and Switzerland, Lyoness is planning its entry into other countries. Amongst them are Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, Argentina, Columbia, Egypt and even African countries..


Presentation during an event in January

It may not be assumed that there will be an extensive legal check in the several countries, thus already in the times of country packages Lyoness invaded countries like Brazil, India or the USA in a “blitzkrieg manner”. Oh, how did they praise India for being a “billion-dollar market”. They said things like “business will go up through the roof” and “there is only a limited volume available and people have to seize the opportunity”. After seven years, Lyoness’s trading net is still ridiculously thin and its press department remains silent when being asked about their forecast back then.

Japan is known for its strict legal interpretation concerning competition questions and will surely have a lot of fun with Lyoness/Lyconet, myWorld etc. The answer to my request to the Japan Fair Trade Commission is still pending.

Norwegian appeal committee confirmed the ban on Lyoness by decision of 27 January 2019!

Lyoness Europe AG and Lyoness Norway AS appealed against this resolution, lastly due to “procedural irregularity and disproportion”. The authority confirmed the resolution on 27 January 2019 according to which Lyoness’ entire business is an illegal pyramidlike trading system in accordance with § 16 (2) of the lottery law and announced that the ban of 31 May 2018 remains valid. ( publication authority )

In its evaluation the authority states, that Lyoness/Lyconet System has a pyramidlike structure and is solely aimed towards the acquisition of new customers via the cashback sector. Participants are promised to receive an income which is generated by the shopping community Lyoness and its pay-ins into the Lyconet section. The low revenues from sale or consumption of goods, services or other advantages is of little importance.

“The authority evaluated the activities of Lyoness in detail and the conclusion is clear. The Norwegian authority expects that Lyoness will comply with the decision and stop any activities in Norway,” said the senior consultant of the Gaming Authority, Monica Alisøy Kjelsnes.

The official version of the decision is in preparation and will soon be published on the website of the appeal committee’s secretariat.

Saving the best for last: Lyoness itself is “shocked and surprised” by this decision.

Lyoness: Following Norway, Italy now also prohibits Lyconet practices!

The Italian competition authority (AGCM) adopted a decision (19 December 2018) – as the Norwegian competition authority did before – showing that Lyoness/Lyconet’s business practices are wrong (incorrect/irregular) and now prohibits its dissemination and continuation. Amongst others, investigations are currently still in progress in Poland.

Page 35 of the Italian decision: (Decision Italy 19.Dec. 2018)

DELIBERA (Decision)

a) che la pratica commerciale descritta al punto II del presente provvedimento, posta in essere dalle società Lyoness Italia S.r.l., nella qualità di professionista ai sensi dell’articolo 18, comma 1, lettera b), del Codice del Consumo, costituisce, per le ragioni e nei limiti esposti in motivazione, una pratica commerciale scorretta ai sensi degli articoli 20, 21 comma 1, lettere b) e c), e 22, nonché dell’articolo 23, comma 1, lettera p), del Codice del Consumo e ne vieta la diffusione o continuazione;

  • è the practices of Lyoness Italia S.r.l. infringe Article 20,21 (and so on). Their practises are therefore wrong (uncorrect/irregular).
  • è since their practices infringe Article 23 and prohibits their dissemination and continuation.

First, a fine of 3.2 Mio € was imposed, which could be seen as a warning shot. Significantly more serious are the findings of the investigations that are similar to Norway’s findings. This is no surprise since the structure and procedures of Lyoness are the same in all countries.

After the conclusion of a long inquiry, the competition authority (AGCM) stated that:

The promotion system for the purchase model “Cashback” Lyoness Italy S.r.l. uses, is incorrect, because it is a pyramid scheme/snowball system, which the Consumer Protection Act classifies as a definitely misleading business practice.

The system revolves around a fee-based discount card with which consumers can “save money” in certain stores. Only the leaders of the Lyoness system yielded high profit rates with the members’ “careers”.

The promotion system used the advantages of the Cashback system just as a pretext and in fact, banked on the recruitment of a high number of consumers as their sales representatives. “After they have ‘joined’, a very high ‘entry fee’ is requested for reaching the first commission level and the start of their ‘career’ as Lyconet Premium Marketers. After this, the marketer has to recruit other consumers and has to make further payments for their ‘career progress’”, said a spokesperson of the authority.

Within the inquiry, it was it has been found that the Cashback system in fact has a secondary position within the economic turnover of the Lyoness system, namely 16%. The remaining 84% are achieved by the sale of Lyconet products! So much for the so-called “purchasing association”. It is only possible to reach a high level of Shopping Points (the compensation mechanism of the payment plan) if the participating consumers or persons recruited by them make further payments. As it has been noted, several ten thousand consumers made these payments to become included and to stay in the system. Only a few people were effectively able to reach relevant positions.

“The regulation authority further noted that methods with which properties, conditions and time limits of the system were presented, are misleading. The different aspects have neither been explained at events nor on the websites. Also, some necessary indication on distance selling contracts, as for example information on the right of withdrawal, the place of jurisdiction and dealing with complaints are missing on the websites.”

Lyoness Italy now has two months left for submitting a new marketing plan that has to be approved by the AGCM. Several Italian Lyconet presidents asserted that they already have implemented all points criticised by the resolution and that they “have received an ‘OK’ from the AGCM”. After consultation with the AGCM, this assertation is incorrect. The AGCM did not receive anything or authorise anything like that. Right now, purchases can still be made with the Cashback card and SMEs can still be added. But anything concerning Premium, ESP, Cloud, EC1 and EC2 (the main source of income) is prohibited. (We already know all this from Norway!)

Lyoness reacts with long known “crisis wording”, the criticised Lyconet business practices are not mentioned:

“Dear Lyconet Marketer, (Google-Transalte) 

In the context of the requests of the competition authority (AGCM) to Lyoness we would like to inform you, that we have heard the decision of the AGCM. We are more than surprise by this latest decision and will of course take all necessary legal measures.

We note that took suitable measures after the beginning of the AGCM inquiry in September 2018 and that we reacted to the authority’s objection immediately. We were therefore even more astounded about the latest decision, which is not plausible for us in any way, even if the changes of the system already made are being regarded. In the whole world, Lyoness is a company that meets the requirements as shown by the closing of proceedings in Austria.

Lyoness is an international purchasing association with 11 million members and more than 120,000 partner companies. In Italy, more than 1.5 million members are daily receiving benefits from more than 25,000 related companies that are feeding tens of millions of purchases back into the community of related companies every month.

As already mentioned, we will oppose this decision at the appropriate places. We can count on a team of competent lawyers and competent independents (super partes), who are supporting our view. We are confident that, like in Austria, we will reach a positive outcome. Therefore, our members will still receive benefits from their purchases and the loyalty program will still be provided to small and medium-sized enterprises.

Of course, we will keep you up-to-date.

With best regards, Lyoness Italia S.r.l.”


December 2018 is the month of decisions on Lyoness in Italy and Norway.

The Autorità garante della concorrenza e del mercato, also known as „Antitrust“ or AGCM, is the national Italian Competition Authority.

On December 18, 2018, the judgement on whether Italy rates Lyoness as a snowball system or not, will be passed. The Situation seems to be quite similar to Norway. In the field of „Cashback-World“ Italy is in fact the strongest market. A fact, which does not improve matters concerning Lyconets strategy of distribution and acquisition of new „sponsors“.

On December 11, 2018, Norway will decide whether its national Competition Authority made (formal) errors in the prohibition proceedings. If this is not the case, the decision on Lyoness in Norway is final and the restricted permission for the Cashback business will be withdrawn.

I will be informed of these decisions immediatly

INTERSPORT Germany forbids Cashback-World the use of their logo!

INTERSPORT is the biggest medium-sized mail order business group in worldwide sports retail. Under, 5800 locations in 65 countries are united under the umbrella of the IIC-Intersport International Corporation GmbH, the purchasing and management corporation of the Intersport group. In 2014 they generated a turnover of EUR 10,5 billion. With market shares of around 36% in Germany and over 20% in Europe the IIC GmbH is the world leader in sports retail.

Like numerous other renowned companies, INTERSPORT Germany was listed at Cashback World with its own company partner ID. The fact that they only were voucherpartners was hardly ever mentioned. Only a few people would recognise that this circumstance did not permit the use of the INTERSPORT logo under trade mark law.

Upon request the following was notified by the INTERSPORT headquarters:

E-Mail (recieved) from 10-01-2018

„There has never a cooperation between the INTERSPORT Germany eG and the Lyoness Europe AG. Also the Lyoness Europe AG was not authorized to use the INTERSPORT logo under trade mark law. After you pointed this out we stopped selling INTERSPORT vouchers tot he Lyoness Europe AG. Due to an injunctive relief the INTERSPORT logo is not longer displayed by Lyoness.“

Best regards from Heilbronn

INTERSPORT Deutschland eG

press officer in corporate communications

Time and again, it has shown, that several affiliates obviously are on the Lyoness management board’s pay roll. Also, the continuos denials of renowned companies are illustrating clearly, how low the revenue at Lyoness (Cashback World) must be.

If these enormous turnovers actually existed, large high-revenue companies would certainly be willing to be listed at myWorld/Lyoness (Cashback World).

Lyoness General Terms and Conditions! EU directives apply in the Austrian Supreme Court’s judgment!

The Austrian High Court judgment passed on the Lyoness General Terms and Conditions (case ref. 10 Ob 45/16i of 18 May 2018) already cite EU directives in the statement of grounds for the judgement on pages 8/9.

From the Austrian High Court judgement, 2.1.2:

Any unclear or incomprehensible contract term in the general terms and conditions or contract form is null and void according to the Austrian Consumer Protection Act (KSchG) §6 para. 3.

This legislation implements the 93/13/EEC directive of the Council of Europe of 5 April 1993 on unfair clauses in consumer contracts, thus regulating what is referred to as the transparency principle in consumer transactions.

The purpose of this legislation is to enable customers to gain reliable information on their own rights and obligations in executing a contract from general terms and conditions or contractual components.

A typical consumer shall not be deterred from enforcing his or her rights due to inaccurate or unclear representation of their contractual position or any unjustified obligations imposed on the consumer.

The transparency principle includes the recognisability and comprehensibility of a clause as well as the obligation to inform the other party of certain legal consequences.

Any consumer affected must be able to assess the resulting financial consequences based on accurate and coherent criteria to the consumer. The transparency principle always assumes the use of terms whose meanings a typical consumer can (easily) determine.

my World/Lyconet! Von „Länderpaketen“ über „Costumer Cloud“ zur „Enterprise Cloud“.

Mit Lyconet hat die Klägerin 2014 die sog. Customer Clouds ins Leben gerufen. Vertragspartner ist nach wie vor die Lyoness Europe AG. Die von Lyoness angebotenen Customer Clouds funktionieren auf die gleiche Art wie die Rabattgutscheine, mit dem Unterschied, dass die Rückzahlung auf dem Umsatz von Mitgliedern außerhalb des Netzwerkes des Mitgliedes beruht.

Es gibt mittlerweile folgende Clouds: Austrian Customer Cloud, South East 1 Customer Cloud, South East 2 Customer Cloud, Italian Customer Cloud, Polish Customer Cloud, Nordic Customer Cloud, Slovakian & Czech Customer Cloud, Spanish and Portuguese Customer Cloud, German Customer Cloud.

Die Clouds entsprechen den früheren Länderpaketen, nur das Wording hat sich geändert.

Bei den Länderpaketen gab die Klägerin vor, auch in anderen Ländern eine Einkaufsgemeinschaft aufzuziehen. Durch das Investment sollten den Kapitalgebern automatisch die in den betreffenden Ländern (bzw. Kontinenten) gewonnenen neuen Lyoness-Kunden zugeteilt werden und die Investoren sollten an den Einkäufen der internationalen Kunden mitverdienen. Dazu müsse man nur ein Businesspaket erwerben und könne dann in diese „Boom-Märkte“ investieren. In periodischen Abständen wurde ein Länderpaket nach dem anderen angeboten, wie beispielsweise Amerika (I und II), Middle East & Africa, Asien, Indien, Brasilien, Mexiko, Südafrika usw. usf. Es gab Buchungszeiträume und um möglichst vorne dabei zu sein, sollte man die Länderpakete auch entsprechend früh zeichnen. Im Gegensatz zum Businesspaket sei die Anwerbung von Mitgliedern nicht erforderlich, das könne man im Ausland ja auch gar nicht.

Die Realität sah aber anders aus: Bei allen Investments mussten auch weitere Kapitalgeber angeworben werden, um einen Gewinnanspruch zu haben, wodurch das Schneeballsystem perfekt ist.

Detto bei den Customer Clouds:

Der Investor der Customer Cloud heißt nunmehr “Sponsor”. Der Ausdruck Sponsor ist in diesem Zusammenhang sogar richtig, weil die Zahler nicht rückzahlbare Zahlungen an Lyoness leisten   und somit Lyoness sponsern. In dieser Cloud sollen sich Lyoness-Mitglieder befinden, welche Einkäufe (worunter vor allem auch Zahlungen an Lyoness fallen) tätigen und von diesen Einkaufsumsätzen soll der Sponsor eine prozentuelle Vergütung erhalten. Die Cloud, also die Summe ausgewählter Lyoness-Mitglieder, soll sich aus Kunden der Lyoness Website und Kunden diverser Kooperationen zusammensetzen. Doch welche Kunden zu einer Kooperation zählen, ist unbestimmt und nicht objektivierbar. Was Kunden der Lyoness Website sein sollen, ist völlig unklar. Die Cloud ist somit jedenfalls – wohl bewusst – eine unbestimmte Größe, da nicht einmal konkret definiert ist, welche und wie viele Mitglieder sich in ihr befinden sollen.

Die Clouds sind somit mit den bisherigen Länderbeteiligungen völlig ident, denn da wie dort soll der Einzahler (Investor, Sponsor) durch Leistung eines Kapitaleinsatzes an den Einkaufsumsätzen der Lyoness-Mitglieder in bestimmten Ländern bzw. einem bestimmten Pool mitverdienen.

Die Kunden der Clouds sollen durch ihre Einkäufe Shopping Points (SP) produzieren und das daraus resultierende SP-Volumen wird anteilig auf alle Sponsoren (teilnehmende Marketer) verteilt.

Der springende Punkt an diesem DKT-Spiel ist, dass die Sponsoren über Anzahl der Kunden und auch Händler (sog. Partnerunternehmen) getäuscht werden. Die Sponsoren leisten Zahlungen an Lyoness, da ihnen vermittelt wird, dass eine enorme Zahl von Kunden bereitsteht, welche bei einer ebenso großen Zahl an Lyoness-Vertragshändlern einkaufen werden.

In diesem Pool sind dann etwa

  • Mitglieder des Cashback World Programms
  • Kunden aus White Label-Kooperationen
  • Kunden der Key-Account-Kooperationen
  • Kunden aus weiteren Kooperationen

Also mit einem Wort ein unbestimmter und unbestimmbarer Kundenkreis, an deren Einkäufen der Sponsor der Customer Cloud mitverdienen soll.

Jedenfalls kosten diese Clouds natürlich Geld, wobei völlig unbestimmt ist, welche Gegenleistung man erwarten darf.

Voraussetzung für die Teilnahme an der Cloud ist der Erwerb eines sog. Limited Edition Discount Vouchers. Der Preis pro Limited Edition Discount Voucher beträgt € 1.500,00 pro Stück. Es gibt eine limitierte Auflage sowie Zeichnungsfristen. War bei den Länderpaketen das Businesspaket Voraussetzung, muss man nun den „Limited Edition Discount Voucher“ (Rabattgutschein) vorab kaufen, um teilnehmen zu können. Der Erwerb des Limited Edition Discount Vouchers berechtigt zur befristeten Teilnahme an der Customer Cloud.

Lyoness übernimmt keinerlei Gewähr über Umfang und Ausmaß barer und unbarer Vorteile, die durch die Teilnahme an der Customer Cloud entstehen können.

Zusammenfassend muss daher festgehalten werden, die Vouchers für die Customers Clouds sind nichts anderes als die Fortsetzung der Anzahlungen in Länderbeteiligungen. Die Einzahler werden über Anzahl der Kunden und Händler und über die Gewinnchancen getäuscht, damit sie einen Kapitaleinsatz leisten.

Bereits bei den Länderpaketen wurde passives Einkommen versprochen, wie sich allerdings herausstellte, mussten allerdings weitere Mitglieder vom Kapitalgeber oder dessen Lifeline angeworben werden, damit eine Gewinnberechtigung bestand.

Auch bei den Customer Clouds im System Lyconet verhält es sich nicht anders. Die Sponsoren müssen selbst weitere Sponsoren anwerben, damit sie Vorteile aus dem System erhalten.

(Quelle: RA Dr. Fromhold)

Enterprise Cloud 1 (EC1)

Im typischen Lyconet-Wording wird alles als noch großartiger und als noch nie dagewesen dargestellt. Diese modifizierte “Super-Cloud” übernimmt jetzt die bestehenden Cloud’s mit einer Laufzeit von 8 Jahren, der Cloud-Inhaber hat kaum eine Chance dem zu entkommen und auch hier wird suggeriert, dass es quasi keine Verluste geben kann.

Bei der neuen EC1 wird zunächst 48 Monate angespart, dann weitere 48 Monate im System belassen und schon hat man eine Menge an Geld verdient. Nach diesen 8 Jahren wird dann weiterhin monatlich ausbezahlt, unter der Bedingung, dass man mindestens 50 SPs monatlich an Einkäufen schafft oder ESP aktiv hält!

Ab Juni werden alle bisherigen LEDVs nicht mehr angeboten und die wenigen noch verfügbaren LEDV fließen in eine noch großartigere Global Enterprise Cloud! Hierzu zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt mehr!

Natürlich werde ich hier wieder sehr viel Kritik und Beschimpfungen von “Lyconet-Jüngern” erhalten, aber vielleicht schafft es ja einer der Kritiker einmal, mit nachvollziehbaren belegten Zahlen, die nicht von myWorld/Lyconet selbst verfasst wurden, gegenteiliges zu belegen.